Peganum harmala, commonly called esfand or aspand is a plant of the family Nitrariaceae.Peganum harmala is a very branched plant with individual white flowers. It is a 35 cm tall, perennial herbaceous plant. Seeds have harmalin, harmin, harmalol, peganin called glycosides and red dyestuff.
Peganum harmala has been used to treat pain and to treat skin inflammations, including skin cancers.It is also used as an anthelmintic (to expel parasitic worms).
A red dye, "Turkey red",from the seeds is often used in western Asia to dye carpets. It is also used to dye wool. When the seeds are extracted with water, a yellow fluorescent dye is obtained. If they are extracted with alcohol, a red dye is obtained.[The stems, roots and seeds can be used to make inks, stains and tattoos.